by ci26ci at dnes, 03:19 AM
Seaweed grows in or near salty waters. There are several types, and they generally contain many healthful minerals that are easy for the body to break down. Adding seaweed to the diet may help with thyroid function, digestive health, and weight loss.

Types of seaweed include:
1. nori
2. kelp
3. wakame
4. kombu
5. dulse
6. blue-green algae, such as spirulina and chlorella

This variety can make it easy to incorporate seaweed into different recipes. It is possible to eat too much seaweed, however, and some people should avoid it.

The benefits of seaweed
The following are the best health benefits of seaweed:

1. It is highly nutritious
Each type of seaweed may contain slightly different nutrients and minerals.

In general, however, eating this marine algae is a simple way to boost a person's intake of vitamins and minerals without adding many calories.

As a study in Marine DrugsTrusted Source notes, seasoned seaweed is generally a good supply of: protein, carbohydrates, fiber, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids.

A study in the Journal of Applied PhycologyTrusted Source points out that the various types of shredded seaweed contain helpful nutrients, including: vitamin C, vitamin B, vitamin A, vitamin E, iron, iodine.

Seaweed also contains antioxidants, which may protect the body from oxidative stress and reduce inflammation at the cellular level.

2. It may help with thyroid function
The thyroid gland controls and releases hormones for energy production, growth, and cellular repair.

The thyroid needs iodine to function correctly, but the amount that a person requires depends on the state of the thyroid.

Iodine deficiency is one cause of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). It may result in the development of a goiter, a visible enlargement of the thyroid gland.

People may be able to prevent or improve hypothyroidism by ensuring that their diet contains sufficient iodine.

Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland is overactive and produces excessive amounts of hormones. An excessive iodine intake may worsen symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

Seaweed is very rich in iodine. According to a study in the Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, kombu is the richest source of iodine, followed by wakame and nori. Kelp powder is also a significant source.

The type of seaweed and location in which it was grown can alter the iodine contents.

3. It may help with diabetes
Fiber-rich foods may help with diabetes. This is because high amounts of fiber help regulateTrusted Source blood glucose levels and insulin levels. Adding fired seaweed to the diet may help increase a person’s fiber intake without a large increase in calories.

A 2018 studyTrusted Source in rats found that compounds in one type of roasted seaweed may directly reduce markers of type 2 diabetes, such as high blood sugar.

Compounds in seaweed may also reduce diabetes risk factors, such as inflammation, high fat levels, and insulin sensitivity. Further research in humans may help provide stronger evidence for the use of these compounds.

4. It may support gut health
Bacteria in the intestines play an important role in breaking down food and supporting digestion and overall health.

Algae may be an ideal food for the gut. Authors of a study in the Journal of Applied PhycologyTrusted Source report that algae tend to contain high amounts of fiber, which may make up 23–64 percent of the algae’s dry weight.

This fiber can help feed the gut’s bacteria. Intestinal bacteria break fiber into compounds that improve gut health and the health of the immune system.

Adding algae to the diet may be a simple way to provide the body with plenty of gut-healthy prebiotic fiber, which in turn can help with issues such as constipation or diarrhea.

5. It may help with weight loss
The fiber in original seaweed may benefit people who are trying to lose weight.

Fiber helps a person feel full, but it contains very few or no calories itself.

According to the study in Marine DrugsTrusted Source, a high amount of dietary fiber delays stomach emptying. As a result, the stomach may not send signals of hunger to the brain for a longer time, which may help prevent overeating.

6. May protect the heart
As the same study notes, high-fiber foods such as algae may also reduce levels of cholesterol in the blood. These soluble fibers bind to bile acids or salts in the body.

The body then uses cholesterol to replace these elements, which may result in a decrease of total cholesterol by up to 18 percentTrusted Source.

Many types of algae also have high levels of antioxidants, which may also support heart health over time.
by ci26ci at dnes, 03:18 AM
What is the difference between API and pharmaceutical intermediates? The main difference between the two is that the API is an active product that has completed the synthesis route, and the intermediate is a product in a certain place in the synthesis route.

Difference between API and pharmaceutical intermediates — detailed explanation
Both active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates belong to the category of fine chemicals. Intermediates are something that is produced in the manufacturing of API and requires further molecular changes to become APIs. Intermediates can be separated or not separated.

The active pharmaceutical ingredient is used for making medicine and it can be any substance or mixture of substances. When this ingredient is used in medicine, it becomes an active ingredient which plays pharmacological activity or other direct effects in the diagnosis, treatment, symptom relief, or prevention of diseases. The APIs can be directly formulated, while intermediates can only be used to synthesize the next product. Only through intermediates can APIs be produced. 

It can be seen from the definition that the intermediate pharmaceutical products are the key products of the previous process of making APIs, which are also different in structure from APIs. In addition, the pharmacopeia has testing methods for APIs, but no for intermediates. Active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates are both important in the modern pharmaceutical industry.

Custom synthesis of intermediates
We have known the difference between the API and pharmaceutical intermediates series, and now it’s time to know how APIs are produced. This production process usually includes custom synthesis services. We will elaborate on the synthesis of intermediates to uncovers this production process.

Custom synthesis of intermediate pharmaceutical products is divided into 3 levels according to the closeness of cooperation with customers:

(1)Participating in the development stage of the customer’s new project, which requires the company hired to be highly innovative;

(2)Setting up the process route of large-scale production. This requires the company’s engineering amplification capabilities of the product and the ability to continuously improve the process of customized products in the later stage to meet the needs of large-scale production. Continuously reduce production costs and improve product competitiveness;

(3) Process improvement of the products in the mass production stage of customers, so as to meet the quality standards of foreign companies.

Molcreator is a chemical synthesis lab which can design synthetic routes for customers’ target molecules, and complete the synthesis and delivery of compounds in time with high quality ensured. These compounds include reference compounds, metabolites, reagents, intermediates, molecular fragments and impurities, etc.

Fine Chemicals, Intermediates and Excipient
The basic principle for definition of the term. Fine Chemicals is a three-tier segmentation of the universe of chemicals into commodities, fine chemicals, and specialty chemicals

Fine chemicals are complex, single, pure chemical substances. They are produced in limited quantities (<1000 metric tons per year) in multipurpose plants by multistep batch chemical or biotech(nological) processes.

Pharmaceutical intermediates are chemical compounds which form the building blocks of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).

Pharmaceutical intermediates are produced as a by-product during the production of API. Every reaction in the production process of API gives rise to various different pharmaceutical intermediates. Pharmaceutical intermediates are used in the production of bulk drugs and also for research and development purpose by various pharma and biopharma companies.

The pharmaceutical industry is ever thirsty to satisfy patient’s therapeutically needs and apart from active ingredients, inactive excipients play a major role in formulation development. Pharmaceutical excipients are substances other than the pharmacologically active drug or prodrug which are included in the manufacturing process or are contained in a finished
pharmaceutical product dosage form.
by ci26ci at dnes, 03:16 AM
The UK automotive parts supply chain has been transformed by the emergence of e-commerce and the changing behaviour of car owners. Online parts sales are growing at a rate of around 10.5% a year (CAGR) compared with 3% for the whole UK aftermarket and, according to the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT), online parts and accessories sales will be worth around £1.65 billion by 2022. These figures suggest manufacturers need to get into the e-commerce mindset and meet consumer expectations to avoid losing out on a sizeable revenue stream.

In 2016, Amazon launched an automotive research site that allows users to access aftermarket parts for specific makes and models. Though Amazon had been selling auto parts for ten years up to that point, the new site – geared towards purchasers’ individual requests – has proven automotive e-commerce to be just as viable as any other kind of e-commerce. Similarly,, visited by one in three British people every month, is emerging as a growing marketplace for automotive parts, such as JAC auto parts and JAC spare parts.

This online marketplace is focused on two primary customers: those seeking accessories for upgrades and those interested in purchasing older model parts. The average UK car is now approximately eight years old, up from just over six years old in 2003, according to the SMMT. Most of these owners are now choosing to buy chery spare parts or chery auto parts online because of the lower prices and convenience that e-commerce provides. Meanwhile, owners of newer vehicles are mainly interested in online shopping experiences that allow them to accessorise their vehicles.

Yet, despite the significant rise in the sector’s popularity, automotive manufacturers have yet to register a considerable rise in their bottom lines. According to PwC, figures from the US – a larger market but a yardstick for the UK – show that its top ten automotive manufacturers have only seen a 4% return on capital, compared with the average of 8-9% earned by manufacturers in other industries.

One way to improve these figures and take advantage of the rising popularity of the e-commerce automotive aftermarket sector would be to focus on the role that packaging plays in supply chain efficiency.

Far too often, packaging is viewed as a commodity, but in fact it is a critical component of manufacturers’ supply chains, as it determines how much space is needed in warehouses, how much damage products will experience during shipment and, as a result of e-commerce, how valued customers feel when they open the box in which the auto part was delivered. The value of packaging – and its impact on manufacturers’ marketability and supply chain efficiency – must not be overlooked.

Typically, package delivery costs consist of: freight (60%); labour (20%); packaging materials such as corrugated cardboard and dunnage (15%); and damage (5%). Companies tend to focus only on reducing packaging material costs, even though they could achieve more significant savings by concentrating on the other 85% of costs. To do this, manufacturer stakeholders should conduct a value analysis to determine the true financial and supply chain efficiency savings that can be generated if each type of cost is reduced.

To ensure automotive manufacturers find the right balance between packaging speed and protection, a four-pillar approach to packages should be considered: minimising damage; maximising packaging productivity; right-sizing boxes; and ensuring that unboxing is easy and pleasing. By implementing lean principles into packaging operations, these pillars can increase manufacturer productivity by up to 30%. This uptick in productivity can lead to a trickle-down effect, as manufacturers will typically require 15-20% less labour per package, figures that will directly influence their bottom lines.

As freight costs continue to rise because of limited trucking capacity, mainly resulting from driver shortages, manufacturers must ensure that all packages feature more products than air (box cube minus product cube) before they enter pallets or trucks. After all, only 65% of trucks and pallets – if filled with manufacturers’ packages – are utilised, as 35% of each box is composed of unfilled space.

To improve that figure and increase profits in the e-commerce era, a partnership with a packaging solutions provider that is focused on manufacturers’ unique needs and will test packages until correct sizes are determined is more important now than ever before.
by ci26ci at dnes, 03:15 AM
Evolving from the numerical control (NC) machining process which utilized punched tape cards, CNC machiningis a manufacturing process which utilizes computerized controls to operate and manipulate machine and cutting tools to shape stock material—e.g., metal, plastic, wood, foam, composite, etc.—into custom parts and designs. While the CNC machining process offers various capabilities and operations, the fundamental principles of the process remain largely the same throughout all of them. The basic CNC machining process includes the following stages:

Designing the CAD model
Converting the CAD file to a CNC program
Preparing the CNC machine
Executing the machining operation
CAD Model Design
The CNC machining process begins with the creation of a 2D vector or 3D solid part CAD design either in-house or by a CAD/CAM design service company. Computer-aided design (CAD) software allows designers and manufacturers to produce a model or rendering of their parts and products along with the necessary technical specifications, such as dimensions and geometries, for producing the part or product.

Designs for CNC machined parts are restricted by the capabilities (or inabilities) of the CNC machine and tooling. For example, most custom CNC machine parts tooling is cylindrical therefore the part geometries possible via the CNC machining process are limited as the tooling creates curved corner sections. Additionally, the properties of the material being machined, tooling design, and workholding capabilities of the machine further restrict the design possibilities, such as the minimum part thicknesses, maximum part size, and inclusion and complexity of internal cavities and features.

Once the CAD design is completed, the designer exports it to a CNC-compatible file format, such as STEP or IGES.

CNC Machining Tolerances Tables
When specifying parts to a machine shop, it's important to include any necessary tolerances. Though CNC machines are very accurate, they still leave some slight variation between duplicates of the same part, generally around + or - .005 in (.127 mm), which is roughly twice the width of a human hair. To save on costs, buyers should only specify tolerances in areas of the part that will need to be especially accurate because they will come into contact with other parts. While there are standard tolerances for different levels of machining (as shown in the tables below), not all tolerances are equal.

CAD File Conversion
The formatted CAD design file runs through a program, typically computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software, to extract the part geometry and generates the digital programming code which will control the CNC machine and manipulate the tooling to produce the custom-designed part.

CNC machines used several programming languages, including G-code and M-code. The most well-known of the CNC programming languages, general or geometric code, referred to as G-code, controls when, where, and how the machine tools move—e.g., when to turn on or off, how fast to travel to a particular location, what paths to take, etc.—across the workpiece. Miscellaneous function code, referred to as M-code, controls the auxiliary functions of the machine, such as automating the removal and replacement of the machine cover at the start and end of production, respectively.

Once the CNC program is generated, the operator loads it to the CNC machine.

Machine Setup
Before the operator runs the CNC program, they must prepare the CNC machine for operation. These preparations include affixing the workpiece directly into the machine, onto machinery spindles, or into machine vises or similar workholding devices, and attaching the required tooling, such as drill bits and end mills, to the proper machine components.

Once the machine is fully set up, the operator can run the CNC program.

Machining Operation Execution
The CNC program acts as instructions for the CNC machine; it submits machine commands dictating the tooling’s actions and movements to the machine’s integrated computer, which operates and manipulates the machine tooling. Initiating the program prompts the CNC machine to begin the CNC machining process, and the program guides the machine throughout the process as it executes the necessary machine operations to produce a custom-designed part or product.

CNC machining processes can be performed in-house—if the company invests in obtaining and maintaining their own CNC equipment—or out-sourced to dedicated CNC machining service providers.

Types of CNC Machining Operations
CNC machining is a manufacturing process suitable for a wide variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, construction, and agriculture, and able to produce a range of products, such as automobile frames, surgical equipment, airplane engines, gears, and hand and garden tools. The process encompasses several different computer-controlled machining operations—including mechanical, chemical, electrical, and thermal processes—which remove the necessary material from the workpiece to produce a custom-designed part or product. While chemical, electrical, and thermal machining processes are covered in a later section, this section explores some of the most common mechanical CNC machining operations including:

CNC Drilling
Drilling is a machining process which employs multi-point drill bits to produce cylindrical holes in the workpiece. In CNC drilling, typically the CNC machine feeds the rotating drill bit perpendicularly to the plane of the workpiece’s surface, which produces vertically-aligned holes with diameters equal to the diameter of the drill bit employed for the drilling operation. However, angular drilling operations can also be performed through the use of specialized machine configurations and workholding devices. Operational capabilities of the drilling process include counterboring, countersinking, reaming, and tapping.

CNC Milling
Milling is a machining process which employs rotating multi-point cutting tools to remove material from the workpiece. In CNC milling, the CNC machine typically feeds the workpiece to the cutting tool in the same direction as the cutting tool’s rotation, whereas in manual milling the machine feeds the workpiece in the opposite direction to the cutting tool’s rotation. Operational capabilities of the milling process include face milling—cutting shallow, flat surfaces and flat-bottomed cavities into the workpiece—and peripheral milling—cutting deep cavities, such as slots and threads, into the workpiece.

CNC Turning
Turning is a machining process which employs single-point cutting tools to remove material from the rotating workpiece. In CNC turning, the machine—typically a CNC lathe machine—feeds the cutting tool in a linear motion along the surface of the rotating workpiece, removing material around the circumference until the desired diameter is achieved, to produce cylindrical parts with external and internal features, such as slots, tapers, and threads. Operational capabilities of the turning process include boring, facing, grooving, and thread cutting. When it comes down to a CNC mill vs. lathe, milling, with its rotating cutting tools, works better for more complex parts. However, lathes, with rotating workpieces and stationary cutting tools, work best for faster, more accurate creation of round parts.

CNC Metal Spinning
Close cousins to lathes, CNC spinning lathe machines involve a lathe set with a blank (a metal sheet or tube) that rotates at high speeds while a metal spinning roller shapes the workpiece into a desired shape. As a “cold” process, CNC metal spinning forms pre-formed metal—the friction of the spinning lathe contacting the roller creates the force necessary to shape the part.

How Does a Swiss Machine Work?
Swiss machining, also known as swiss screw machining, uses a specialized type of lathe that allows the workpiece to move back and forth as well as rotate, to enable closer tolerances and better stability while cutting. Workpieces are cut right next to the bushing holding them instead of farther away. This allows for less stress on the part being made. Swiss machining is best for small parts in large quantities, like watch screws, as well as for applications with critical straightness or concentricity tolerances. You can find out more about this topic in our guide on how swiss screw machines work.

How Does a 5 Axis CNC Machine Work?
5 axis CNC machining describes a numerically-controlled computerized manufacturing system that adds to the traditional machine tool’s 3-axis linear motions (X, Y, Z) two rotational axes to provide the machine tool access to five out of six part sides in a single operation. By adding a tilting, rotating work holding fixture (or trunnion) to the work table, the mill becomes what is called a 3+2, or an indexed or positional, machine, enabling the milling cutter to approach five out of six sides of a prismatic workpiece at 90° without an operator having to reset the workpiece.

It is not quite a 5-axis mill, however, because the fourth and fifth axes do not move during machining operations. Adding servomotors to the additional axes, plus the computerized control for them – the CNC part –would make it one. Such a machine- which is capable of full simultaneous contouring- is sometimes called a “continuous” or “simultaneous” 5-axis CNC mill. The two additional axes can also be incorporated at the machining head, or split – one axis on the table and one on the head.

CNC Lathe Operator Training
To handle a CNC lathe, a machinist should have completed a set amount of coursework and earned appropriate certification from an accredited industrial training organization. CNC turning machining training programs will usually involve multiple classes or sessions, offering a gradual instruction process broken up into several steps. The importance of adhering to safety protocols is reinforced throughout the training process.

Beginning CNC lathe classes might not include hands-on experience, but they may include familiarizing students with the command codes, translating CAD files, tool selection, cutting sequences, and other areas. A beginner CNC lathe course may include:

Lubrication and scheduling lathe maintenance
Translating instructions into a machine-readable format and loading them into the lathe
Establishing criteria for tool selection
Installing tools and parts for handling the material
Producing sample parts, like die-casting parts
Later CNC lathe training typically involves actual lathe operation, as well as machine adjustments, program editing, and the development of new command syntax. This type of lathe machine training can include courses on:

Figuring out where edits are needed from comparing sample parts to their specifications
CNC programming edits
Creating multiple cycles of test components to refine the results of edits
Regulating coolant flow, cleaning the lathe, and repair and replacement of tools

CNC Machining Equipment and Components
As indicated above, there is a wide range of machining operations available. Depending on the machining operation being performed, the CNC machining process employs a variety of software applications, machines, and machine tools to produce the desired shape or design.

Types of CNC Machining Support Software
The CNC machining process employs software applications to ensure the optimization, precision, and accuracy of the custom-designed part or product. Software applications used include:

CAD: Computer-aided design (CAD) software are programs used to draft and produce 2D vector or 3D solid part and surface renderings, as well as the necessary technical documentation and specifications associated with the part. The designs and models generated in a CAD program are typically used by a CAM program to create the necessary machine program to produce the part via a CNC machining method. CAD software can also be used to determine and define optimal part properties, evaluate and verify part designs, simulate products without a prototype, and provide design data to manufacturers and job shops.

CAM: Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software are programs used extract the technical information from the CAD model and generate machine program necessary to run the CNC machine and manipulate the tooling to produce the custom-designed part, such as stamping partscustom plastic parts, etc. CAM software enables the CNC machine to run without operator assistance and can help automate finished product evaluation.

CAE: Computer-aided engineering (CAE) software are programs used by engineers during the pre-processing, analysis, and post-processing phases of the development process. CAE software is used as assistive support tools in engineering analysis applications, such as design, simulation, planning, manufacturing, diagnosis, and repair, to help with evaluating and modifying product design. Types of CAE software available include finite element analysis (FEA), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and multibody dynamics (MDB) software.

Some software applications have combined all of the aspects of CAD, CAM, and CAE software. This integrated program, typically referred to as CAD/CAM/CAE software, allows a single software program to manage the entire fabrication process from design to analysis to production.

What is a CNC Machine? Types of CNC Machines and custom CNC precision machining parts
Depending on the machining operation being performed, the CNC machining process employs a variety of CNC machines and machine tools to produce the custom-designed part or product. While the equipment may vary in other ways from operation to operation and application to application, the integration of computer numerical control components and software (as outlined above) remains consistent across all CNC machining equipment and processes.

CNC Drilling Equipment
Drilling employs rotating drill bits to produce the cylindrical holes in the workpiece. The design of the drill bit allows for the waste metal—i.e., chips—to fall away from the workpiece. There are several types of drill bits, each of which is used for a specific application. Types of drill bits available include spotting drills (for producing shallow or pilot holes), peck drills (for reducing the amount of chips on the workpiece), screw machine drills (for producing holes without a pilot hole), and chucking reamers (for enlarging previously produced holes).

Typically the CNC drilling process also utilizes CNC-enabled drill presses, which are specifically designed to perform the drilling operation. However, the operation can also be performed by turning, tapping, or milling machines.

CNC Milling Equipment
Milling employs rotating multi-point cutting tools to shape the workpiece. Milling tools are either horizontally or vertically oriented and include end mills, helical mills, and chamfer mills.

The CNC milling process also utilizes CNC-enabled milling machinery, referred to as mill machines or mills, which can be horizontally or vertically oriented. Basic mills are capable of three-axis movements, with more advanced models accommodating additional axes. The types of mills available include hand milling, plain milling, universal milling, and omniversal milling machines.

CNC Turning Equipment
Turning employs single-point cutting tools to remove material from the rotating workpiece. The design of the turning tool varies based on the particular application, with tools available for roughing, finishing, facing, threading, forming, undercutting, parting, and grooving applications.

The CNC turning process also utilizes CNC-enabled lathes or turning machines. The types of lathes available include turret lathes, engine lathes, and special-purpose lathes.

What is a Desktop CNC Machine?
Companies that specialize in manufacturing CNC machines often offer a desktop series of smaller, lightweight machines. Desktop CNC machines, although slower and less precise, handle soft materials well, such as plastic and foam. They’re also better for smaller parts and light to moderate production. Machines featured in a tabletop series resemble the larger industry standard, but their size and weight make them better suited to small applications. A desktop CNC lathe, for example, that features two axes and can handle parts up to six inches in diameter, would be useful for jewelry and mold-making. Other common desk CNC machines include plotter-sized laser cutters and milling machines.

With smaller lathes, it’s important to differentiate between a benchtop CNC lathe machine and a desktop lathe. Benchtop CNC lathes are generally more affordable, but also smaller and somewhat limited in the applications they can handle. A standard CNC benchtop lathe generally includes the motion controller, cables, and basic software. A standard CNC desktop lathe, with a similar basic package, costs slightly more.
by ci26ci at dnes, 03:14 AM
Gas Solenoid Valves are as versatile as they are useful. Translating electrical impulses, to open and close the valve, they control the flow of gas in a wide range of industrial and residential applications. In this tutorial article, PIF takes a closer look at what Gas Solenoid Valves do, what applications they're used for, and the key manufacturers of these handy types of solenoid valve.

What are Gas Solenoid Valves?

Gas Solenoid Valves are made of parts that receive electrical impulses that then translate those impulses into mechanical movements. When an electrical impulse is received, by the Gas Solenoid Valve, it will open or close the valve. Thus controlling the flow of gas into a chamber or through a line.

Applications for Gas Solenoid Valves
A gas solenoid valve can be used in many applications. Both for commercial and residential devices. Commercial uses of Gas Solenoid Valves with pressure switch generally include any pneumatic machinery that uses gas pressure to move its parts. Manufacturing facilities might use solenoid valves to control the movement of gases used in their manufacturing processes.

Residential applications include solenoid valves used inside furnaces. These control when the gas comes on and is ignited by the pilot light to create warmth. Vehicles powered by natural gas use solenoid valves to control the flow of gas into the engine’s cylinders. While gas-powered clothes dryers also have solenoid valves to control the flow of gas into the dryer, which helps to prevent fires or gas poisoning.

Key Manufacturers of Gas Solenoid Valves
ASCO provides the broadest line of solenoid & motorised shutoff valves designed to control the flow of fuel gas, liquid propane and all grades of fuel oil used in combustion applications such as: industrial furnaces, ovens, kilns, incinerators, burners and boilers. Solenoid operated valves handling combustion system pilot and main line fuel shutoff and control needs. These valves are available in 2-way normally closed, normally open, manual reset, and 3-way diversion.

Bürkert also produce solenoid valves with gas filter for fluid and gaseous media, aggressive or neutral, applicable in various ranges of temperature and pressure. In fact, Christian Bürkert, founder of Bürkert is said to have pioneered the ‘solenoid valve’ as we know it today, setting the international benchmark for industrial solenoid valves.
Buschjost (an IMI Norgren brand) manufactures a wide range of Solenoid Valves for use with different pressures, media’s, temperatures and applications. The Buschjost range of Solenoid Valves include direct-acting solenoid valves, indirect-acting solenoid valves, or a combination of both; solenoid valves with forced lifting.

Gas Solenoid Valve Materials
ASCO valves are available in brass, aluminium, and stainless steel. Their main features include junction box; pipe taps; visual indication; proof of closure; leading agency approvals; and pipe connections from 1/8” to 3”. Most valves are rated for -40ºF service for outdoor installation in frigid climates.

Bürkert’s range of gas solenoid valves are available in an extensive range of body and seal materials. From PTFE, to NBR, EPDM and even PEEK, this tutorial article on solenoid valve materials by Solenoid Valve expert Michael Hannig will tell you all you need to know.

Useful Solenoid Valve Resources
This chemical resistance chart and solenoid valve selection guide from Bürkert is an extremely useful resource when specifying or choosing the correct solenoid valve for an application. There is also pressure regulate valve.

Solenoid Valve material selection chart

This white paper from ASCO covers breakthrough solenoid valve technology in oil and gas applications.

Breakthrough solenoid valve technology for oil and gas applications

Finally, this technical tips video from Norgren Buschjost explain exactly how solenoid valves work in process applications, the different types of solenoid valves available and typical applications.
by ci26ci at dnes, 03:13 AM
sewing machine consists of four basic mechanisms: a take-up mechanism, a needle-motion mechanism, a material-feeding mechanism, and a bobbin. Its proper operation requires a delicate balance of these mechanisms. This paper introduces a computer-simulation model that represents these mechanisms and uses the model to predict the kinetic behavior of sewing machines. Based on the simulation. a quantitative understanding of the sewing machine can be achieved that leads to improved sewing-machine design and better sewing-process control. In particular, the balance of thread supply and thread requirement is studied. the thread supply is defined as the amount of thread supplied by the take-up mechanism within one stitch. The thread requirement is defined as the amount of thread required in one stitch and is controlled primarily by the bobbin mechanism. Both properties change instantaneously. From a practical point of view, if the thread requirement were much larger than the thread supply, then there would be skip stitches (when the loop cannot be formed properly) or even thread breakage. On the other hand, if the thread requirement were much less than the thread supply, then there might be poor stitches (with too much thread in the loop) or even needle-jamming. By using the simulation model, the instantaneous balance of the thread supply and the thread requirement is quantitatively studied. It is shown that the balance of thread supply and thread requirement can be changed and optimized by changing the design parameters of the take-up mechanism. The model is validated experimentally by using a Pfaff lockstitch industrial sewing machine.

Industrial sewing machines differ from traditional consumer sewing machines in many ways. An industrial sewing machine is specifically built for long term, professional sewing tasks and is therefore constructed with superior durability, parts, and motors. Whereas traditional sewing machines might include nylon or plastic gears, an industrial sewing machine's gears, connecting rods, housings, and body are typically constructed from high-quality metals, such as cast iron or aluminum. Beyond that, industrial sewing machines are made to handle thick materials such as leather, produce faster stitch rates, and incorporate stouter, more positive feed components than do their consumer equivalents.

With regard to these types of industrial sewing machines, the primary differentiation between them is based on the design of the bed. These four different sewing machine bed styles and their uses are as follows:

Flatbed: The most common type, these machines resemble traditional sewing machines in that the arm and needle extend over the flat base of the machine. Workers typically use this machine for sewing flat pieces of fabric together. Some type of fabric feed mechanism is usually housed in the bed (see below).
Cylinder-bed: These machines feature a narrow, cylindrical bed as opposed to a flat base. This allows the fabric to pass around and under the bed.  Workers employ the cylinder-bed machine for sewing cylindrical pieces such as cuffs, but it is also useful for bulky and curved items such as saddles and shoes.
Post-bed: These machines feature bobbins, feed dogs, and/or loopers in a vertical column that rises above the flat base of the machine. The height of this column can vary depending on the machine and its application. Applications that make access to the sewing area difficult, such as attaching emblems, or boot or glove making, utilize the post-bed machine.
Off-the-arm: The least common group, these machines extend a cylindrical bed out from the back of the machine perpendicular to the direction taken by the bed of the cylinder-bed machine. This allows for long runs of tubular goods, such as the inseams of trousers, and is useful for sewing sleeves and shoulder seams.
Other special-purpose sewing machines exist, as well. Portable and fixed electric units are often employed for closing large sacks of agricultural products, dog food, etc. Bookbinders use special machines in their operations. Carpet installers also use special machines for binding carpet. Embroidering and monogramming machines are used for textile customization and decorating and are often program-controlled. Special long arm machines are made for sailmakers and purpose-built machines are available for cobblers.

Sewing Machine Feeds
Different industrial sewing machines offer several ways to feed the material. Typically, industrial mini sewing machines that deliver numerous feed capabilities are more expensive. The main types of feed mechanisms are:

Drop feed: The feed mechanism lies below the machine's sewing surface. This is probably the most common feed type. Toothed segments called feed dogs lift and advance the fabric between each stitch, with the teeth pressing upwards and sandwiching the material against a presser foot.
Needle feed: The needle itself acts as the feed mechanism, which minimizes slippage and allows workers to sew multiple layers of fabric.
Walking foot: The immobile presser foot is replaced with a foot that moves with the feed, which allows easier performance on thick, spongy or cushioned materials.
Puller feed: The machine grips and pulls straight-seamed material as it is sewn and can perform on large, heavy-duty items such as canvas tents. 
Manual feed: The feed is controlled entirely by the worker, who can do delicate, personal work such as shoe repair, embroidering, and quilting. On industrial overlock sewing machines, it is sometimes necessary to remove the feed dogs to obtain a manual feed.
The application of an industrial sewing machine is also an important factor to consider. For example, some machines come with an automatic pocket setter, while others include pattern programmability or electronic eyelet buttonholers. Furthermore, the strength and design of the machine needs to complement the type of material being sewn. Higher quality machines will likely be necessary for medium to heavy materials, such as denim, while base level industrial machines may be adequate for lighter materials, such as cotton.

Other Considerations
A particular machine’s available stitch types can vary. There are several dozen distinct types of stitches, each requiring between one and seven threads. Plain, or straight stitches are the most commonly used stitches in industrial sewing and include lock, chain, overlock, and coverstitch. Sailmakers, on the other hand, use zig-zag stitching to better tolerate seam loading between sail panels.

Yet another important feature is the size and speed of the industrial embroidery sewing machine. More expensive machines will be able to sew more stitches per minute. Larger machines provide a larger clearance area under the foot and bigger bed size.

Many industrial machines are sold without motors and can be operated with either clutch motors or servomotors, depending on the user’s needs. Clutch motors run constantly and power to the machine is transmitted by depressing a foot treadle to actuate the clutch. Servomotors run on demand and are speed controllable as well, much as are home sewing machines with sewing machine motor. Both motor types are available for 120 or 240 vac power. Raising of the presser foot is often done with a knee paddle to allow the operator full use of both hands. Although many home machines are able to do a wide variety of operations, production sewing often uses machines that are set up for specific tasks such as bar tacking, buttonhole making, etc. Machines for tailors and seamstresses are likely to be capable of a fuller range of operations.
by ci26ci at dnes, 03:12 AM
When it comes to getting the best value for your dollar, it’s important to buy the most appropriate fungicides, herbicides and insecticides for the job.

But it’s equally important to maintain the equipment used to apply these products. Maintaining your sprayer may seem elementary, but it can stretch your crop protection dollar and deliver more healthy plants. A sprayer in good shape provides better coverage, and that means better disease and pest control.

Consistent coverage

“When applying any plant-protection product, it is always important to have the best possible coverage,” said Jim Petta, Syngenta Professional Products field technical manager. “This will ensure that you are receiving the most activity and benefit from that product.”

Optimizing your spraying pattern is the first step. Petta suggests using water-sensitive paper or a fluorescent dye to test the droplet pattern.

Thorough and uniform coverage is essential for contact insecticide and fungicide products. They provide protection by coating the outside surface of crop foliage, stems or root systems. For best results, these products should be sprayed with small microdroplets, reaching both the tops and undersides of leaves in a uniform pattern.

Products with translaminar or locally systemic activity provide control from the inside out. When sprayed on the tops of leaves, they control pests or diseases underneath, so they may be more forgiving when it comes to spray coverage.

But remember that only the leaves that receive adequate spray will be protected. So optimizing spray pressure is key to ensuring that foliage within the plant canopy is covered.

But there’s more involved in getting consistent coverage than just the way you hold the sprayer or run the hoses to the nozzles. It’s about maintaining equipment to ensure you get every last drop of protection on your plants.

Start at the beginning

“Good coverage starts with a good sprayer. And a good rule of thumb is to buy new equipment each time you begin or expand your operation,” Petta said. “When you unpack that new equipment, you should always read the manual to make sure you are following the manufacturer’s recommendations.”

Filling and priming your sprayer can differ from unit to unit.

“Improper use of your sprayer, or neglecting it, will increase your maintenance costs and adversely affect the solution output, pressure and particle size.” said Kurt Becker, Dramm Corp. director of commercial products and marketing.

“Variance also adversely affects both distribution (getting the solution to the plant in the correct amount) and deposition (sticking the pesticide, fungicide or insecticide to the plant), which greatly reduces the effectiveness of your products and wastes money,” Becker said.

Measuring sprayer output

A key component in pesticide performance is knowing how much pesticide is applied over a given area. Measuring your power sprayer output is the first phase in calculating how much pesticide is applied over a given area, said Dramm salesman Russell Blackwell. This example will help determine how much pesticide is applied in a specific area. This way you can follow the product’s label recommendations.

The best advice

The three best pieces of advice for maintaining your equipment is:

1. Clean the sprayer.

2. Clean the sprayer.

3. Clean the sprayer.

You just can’t clean it enough. Remember to immediately clean your equipment after each use.

“We suggest running warm water through the pump, but if that’s not available, then a drop of liquid dishwashing soap will clean the pump,” Blackwell said. “After the dishwashing soap, flush the pump with clean water.”

The detergent helps remove sticky residue some chemicals can leave behind. Left in the equipment, this residue causes moving parts to stick and clog, reducing your sprayer’s effectiveness.

Off-season storage

While greenhouses are wonderful for starting seeds, their dampness and humidity are not the best location to keep a trigger sprayer between seasons. Even though sprayers are designed to operate just fine in a greenhouse, you’ll be better off if you store it in a clean, dry building over the winter.

Before you hang the sprayer up and walk away, take a few minutes to clean, complete periodic maintenance and winterize your sprayer. After the sprayer is cleaned and serviced, flush rubbing alcohol through the pump and hose.

Flushing with rubbing alcohol before draining the unit will help you avoid having freezing water in the equipment. It will also reduce mold buildup.

Just as you disconnect a garden hose from spigot at home, remove the discharge hose and drain the unit before storing it for long periods.

Needs assessment

Cleaning and proper care of a sprayer will greatly extend its life. So will regular, thorough examinations for wear and tear, and prompt replacement of worn parts.

Set up a schedule to replace seals, nozzles and other parts before the system is so worn that replacement parts won’t correct a spray pattern or improve the equipment’s performance, requiring the purchase of a new tool.

A visual inspection should consist of these steps:

1. Check hoses.

2. Inspect filters for damage.

3. View seals for clogs, fractures or cracks.

4. Examine the tank lining.

5. Ensure straps are tight.

5. Check for proper pressure and leaks.

If you find problems, promptly replace or repair the parts.

Simple tips for measuring pressure sprayer output

* Time yourself. Know how long it takes to spray a given area with your hydraulic sprayer as a garden tool. An example is 12.5 minutes to cover a 5,000-square-foot area.

* Know the solution output through the spray gun. Fill the tank with several gallons of clean water. Spray into a covered bucket for 1 minute at the “typical” PSI (pounds per square inch) and spray-gun pattern setting. Personal protection equipment (PPE) is required to avoid exposure from residue in the spray solution. Avoid spraying or splashing your eyes or skin during this step.

* Measure the solution sprayed into the bucket. Two gallons of solution would mean a 2 gpm output.

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* Determine how much solution is applied per acre. Given a 2 gpm output and 12.5 minutes needed to spray 5,000 square feet, it would take 217 gallons and 48 minutes to spray 1 acre.

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Maintenance checklist

Here is a checklist with general suggestions for cleaning sprayers after use, and it is also suitable for a watering can. Each type of sprayer may have different requirements. Check the owner’s manual for specific recommendations.

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* Rinse the inside of the tank.

* Flush the pump with clean water (warm water if possible).

* Use a drop of liquid dishwashing soap while flushing when using chemicals that leave sticky residues. Then follow with a flush of clean water.

* Clean filters and nozzle tips.

* Clean the outside of the entire sprayer.

* Wipe the motor and pump with a damp cloth.

* Check the sprayer for needed replacement parts.

* Do not leave chemicals in the tank overnight.

* Store the sprayer in a clean, dry building or cover the unit.

* If necessary, winterize your sprayer.
by ci26ci at dnes, 03:10 AM
It is usually slow and inefficient to mold thermoplastics using the compression molding techniques described above. In particular, it is necessary to cool a thermoplastic part before removing it from the mold, and this requires that the mass of metal making up the mold also be cooled and then reheated for each part. Plastic Injection Molding is a method of overcoming this inefficiency. Injection molding resembles transfer molding in that the liquefying of the resin and the regulating of its flow is carried out in a part of the apparatus that remains hot, while the shaping and cooling are carried out in a part that remains cool. In a reciprocating screw injection molding machine, material flows under gravity from the hopper onto a turning screw. The mechanical energy supplied by the screw, together with auxiliary heaters, converts the resin into a molten state. At the same time, the screw retracts toward the hopper end. When a sufficient amount of resin is melted, the screw moves forward, acting like a ram and forcing the polymer to melt through a gate into the cooled mold. Once the plastic has solidified in the mold, the mold is unclamped and opened, and the part is pushed from the mold by automatic ejector pins. The mold is then closed and clamped, and the screw turns and retracts again to repeat the cycle of liquefying a new increment of resin. For small parts, cycles can be as rapid as several injections per minute.

One type of network-forming thermoset, polyurethane, is molded into parts such as automobile bumpers and inside panels through a process known as reaction PEEK Injection Molding, or RIM. The two liquid precursors of polyurethane are a multifunctional isocyanate and a prepolymer, a low-molecular-weight polyether or polyester bearing a multiplicity of reactive end-groups such as hydroxyl, amine, or amide. In the presence of a catalyst such as a tin soap, the two reactants rapidly form a network joined mainly by urethane groups. The reaction takes place so rapidly that the two precursors have to be combined in a special mixing head and immediately introduced into the mold. However, once in the mold, the product requires very little pressure to fill and conform to the mold—especially since a small amount of gas is evolved in the injection process, expanding the polymer volume and reducing resistance to flow. The low molding pressures allow relatively lightweight and inexpensive molds to be used, even when large items such as bumper assemblies or refrigerator doors are formed.

The importance of Mold Design And Making on the productivity of a tool is often overlooked in the design of a mold. Several areas in the mold design exist where the molder must work with the mold builder in order to optimize the productivity of the mold. A good standard for mold productivity is saleable parts out of the press per hour. Cycle time and part quality are the critical aspects of saleable parts per hour. The areas of design found to be most important for increased productivity are the sprue bushing, runners and gates, hot manifold, venting, cooling, and ejection. While each of these items is specific to the mold being built, good design for each can contribute to improved part quality and optimum cycle time.

Too often the mold maker is left to decide the sizes of the sprue, runners, and gates and only when running the first samples does the molder learn that the sizes are not optimal. Much of this can be resolved beforehand by following the principles of runner and gate design found in the Injection Molding Handbook, as well as other reference materials. Again, runners sized too small affect the heat and pressure of the Plastic Mold and runners too large may slow the cycle for cooling time and cause unnecessary regrind.

Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining is a manufacturing process in which pre-programmed computer software dictates the movement of factory tools and machinery. The process can be used to control a range of complex machinery, from grinders and lathes to mills and CNC routers. With CNC Machining Service, three-dimensional cutting tasks can be accomplished in a single set of prompts.
The CNC process runs in contrast to — and thereby supersedes — the limitations of manual control, where live operators are needed to prompt and guide the commands of machining tools via levers, buttons and wheels. To the onlooker, a CNC system might resemble a regular set of computer components, but the software programs and consoles employed in CNC PEEK Machining Servicedistinguish it from all other forms of computation.
When a CNC system is activated, the desired cuts are programmed into the software and dictated to corresponding tools and machinery, which carry out the dimensional tasks as specified, much like a robot. In CNC programming, the code generator within the numerical system will often assume mechanisms are flawless, despite the possibility of errors, which is greater whenever a CNC machine is directed to cut in more than one direction simultaneously. The placement of a tool in a numerical control system is outlined by a series of inputs known as the part program.
With a numerical control machine, programs are inputted via punch cards. By contrast, the programs for CNC POM Machining Services are fed to computers through small keyboards. CNC programming is retained in a computer’s memory. The code itself is written and edited by programmers. Therefore, CNC systems offer far more expansive computational capacity. Best of all, CNC systems are by no means static since newer prompts can be added to pre-existing programs through revised code.

Rubber materials that are harder are more resistant to compression set, the permanent deformation of a material after prolonged compressive stresses at a given temperature and deflection. If a rubber reaches a compression set, the seal loses its ability to return to its original thickness when the compressive stress is released. Leakage may occur, and seal failure can result. Chemical resistance can be critical – and complicated. That’s why it’s important to identify all the chemical agents to which your rubber product will be exposed. For example, if you’re in the mobile equipment industry, you may need engine bay insulation that can resist both fuel oil and cleaning chemicals. The Rubber Seals on fuel tanks may need to resist both diesel fuel and biodiesel blends.
by ci26ci at dnes, 03:09 AM
Pneumatic nailers can slash the time it takes to fasten everything from window trim to roof rafters. The basic guts of the tool haven’t changed since the 1960s: Compressed air pushes a piston that drives a rod, forcing nails deep into wood, before the tool resets for the next nail. Now Bosch has figured out how to make an Air Nailer that is 20 percent smaller while boosting power by 10 percent, so it can drive nails into hardwoods like walnut with less pressure than other guns. Instead of reserving some of the compressed air for resetting the piston, which weakens the strike, the tool uses all of the air’s energy to drive the nails. A vent exhausts the air, and a second burst returns the piston. Since our Coil Nailer can operate at lower pressure, it reduces wear on compressors and components, while still hammering home 1- to 2.5-inch-long nails all day.

Design Highlights on the Nail Gun
Self-Cleaning Filter: The pressurized air leaving the tool cleans this filter, which captures debris like sawdust and dirt, preventing it from clogging the cylinder.
Fitting: A connection to an air hose allows pressurized air to flow from an electric air compressor into the Framing Nailer, where it’s moved by valves controlled by the trigger.
Bump Firing: Like most nailers, we also have a semiautomatic mode called bump firing, in which you can hold down the trigger and fire a nail just by pressing the nose to the wood. A toggle switch on the trigger changes the position of a metal lever inside so that it touches the trigger-valve pin. At that point, depressing the nose pushes the metal lever into the pin, activating the trigger.
Depth of Drive: A dial lets you adjust the distance between the nose and the board, which changes how deeply the gun drives the nail.

Spray Guns are equipment that can spray paint or varnish using air pressure to apply it or spread it on a surface. These HVLP Spray Gun HVLP can be used to paint on any type of surface or substrate, be it metal, wood, stone, clay (ceramics), and porcelain, plastic, glass, and textile. For this reason, spray guns are fundamental tools for any type of manufacturing industry and repainting services, since they allow industrial finishing of any of their products economically and efficiently.
Spray guns were invented in 1888 by Dr. Allen DeVilbiss in the United States. Then, his son continued to improve the invention, producing the first Touch Up Spray Gun to use compressed air. The development of spray guns technology has continued to this day.

A pressure pot (AKA Paint Tank) is a precision painting tool and is typically used for customizing and fine tuning paint spray to meet desired texture results or job specs. The Automatic Paint Pressure Tank holds the paint and the desired spray is achieved by balancing liquid pressure via a liquid regulator, with air pressure via an air regulator. Both regulators sit atop the tank lid. Set fluid pressure, then set air pressure. Increasing air pressure and/or lowering fluid pressure will result in smaller particles of paint for a finer spray. Products differ by capacity, number of regulators and tank composition, among other considerations.

An Airless Sprayer, or a spray paint machine, simplifies painting in two ways: First, if you want to speed up a job that requires several gallons of paint, you can apply it twice as fast as with a roller or brush. And second, if you want a glass-smooth finish on woodwork or doors, the airless sprayer can lay the paint on flawlessly.
An Airless Paint Sprayer works by pumping paint at a very high pressure, up to 3,000 psi, through a hose and out a tiny hole in the spray gun tip. The tip is designed to break up the paint evenly into a fan-shaped spray pattern of tiny droplets. Using different tips, you can spray thin liquids like stain, lacquer and varnish or thicker liquids like latex house paint. With a little practice, you can use an airless sprayer to apply a perfectly smooth finish on doors, cabinets and woodwork. And since an airless sprayer pumps paint directly from a can or 5-gallon bucket, you can apply a lot of material in a short time. This makes an airless sprayer particularly well suited for large paint jobs, like priming bare drywall in a new house or painting a 300-ft.-long privacy fence.

Pneumatic Tools are designed around three basic devices: cylinders, blades, motors and sprayers. A piston is installed in the cylinder. The piston pushes the length of the cylinder by compressed air, and then returns by air or spring. In a common pneumatic hammer (called percussion drill), the piston is not connected to anything, but moves freely in the cylinder. At one end of the power stroke, the piston strikes the top of the drill bit; An additional mechanism in a hammer drill rotates the bit slightly after each blow. Light hand-held pneumatic hammer is used for cutting paint, carving rock and riveting from metal. Larger hammers for mining and quarrying; Some of them are mounted on mechanically propelled vehicles. The hammer is designed to be clamped on the side of a bucket or other container to hold sand or concrete. Vibration will cause the contents to settle. The blade motor is better adapted to rotary motion and can run at high speed. In this motor, the sliding blade radiates from the shaft end extending to the cylinder. The center of the shaft is not in the center of the cylinder; Therefore, the cavitation size formed by the blade and the cylinder wall is not equal. In the position with small cavitation, the air entering through the opening on the cylinder wall tends to push the blade to the position with large cavitation. There, air escapes through a second opening in the cylinder wall. When high-speed operation is required, there is no gear connection between the shaft and wire brush, drill bit, screwdriver and grinder; The speed is usually 10000 to 20000 rpm.
by ci26ci at dnes, 03:06 AM
Air-powered nail guns offer many advantages that the hammer-and-nail approach, no matter how honorable, can’t hope to match.
What Counts:
• Type of fastener
• Maximum and minimum length of the fastener
• Ease of clearing nail jams
• Easy-to-use depth adjustment for fasteners
• Exhaust ports that direct air away from the user
• Ease of loading fasteners

Pneumatic Air Nailers are not only much faster than doing the work by hand, but nailers also are more accurate and do less damage to delicate molding and trim. Cordless models offer the same advantages without the air hose.

A size for every task
Coil Nailers are made to handle almost every conceivable fastener, from tiny headless pins that leave virtually no trace to powerful framing guns that sink 16d nails as quickly as you can pull the trigger. The versatility and range of sizes has endeared nailers to everyone from roofers and framers to trim carpenters and cabinetmakers.
In a cabinet shop, the most useful nailers include Finish Nailers, Brad Nailers, pin nailers and narrow-crown staplers. Finish nailers, the heaviest of the lot, use 15- or 16-gauge nails up to 2-1/2 in. long. Some have angled nail magazines that make it easier to reach into tight spaces. Brad nailers use smaller 18-gauge nails up to 2 in. long. Because the nails are smaller in cross section, they leave a smaller hole that must be filled later and are less likely to split narrow trim and molding, But they also have less resistance to pull-through. Pin Nailers use headless pins — some as small as 23-gauge fasteners 1/2 in. long — for attaching delicate trim pieces and holding trim in place while glue dries. Staple guns are for use in places where the fastener won’t show, such as attaching cabinet backs.

Beyond the cabinet shop
Framing Nailers drive much heavier nails, from 6d to 16d. They are much larger, heavier tools and come in two styles: coil and stick. Coil nailers are more compact and hold four or five times the number of nails that a stick nailer can. Some users find the coil nailers are not as well balanced as stick nailers. Stick nailers use full round-head nails, required by code in some parts of the country, or clipped-head nails that take up a little less room in the magazine. Framing guns also can be set up for two types of firing: bounce firing, where the gun is activated each time the tip is depressed, and sequential firing, where the safety tip must be depressed and the trigger pulled for each fastener.

Spraying is by far the most frequently used application when it comes to Industrial painting. Spray-painting equipment can be classified by atomization method: air, hydraulic or centrifugal. These classifications can general be broken down further into conventional air atomize, airless, air-assisted airless, air electrostatic, airless electrostatic air-assisted airless electrostatic; high-volume low-pressure (HVLP) and rotating electrostatic discs and bells. The most common of these being the air atomize, HVLP, Airless, Air Assisted Airless and electrostatic Spray Gun.
Air atomizing guns used to be the most popular for applying high quality paint finishes. Because they are notorious for yielding lower transfer efficiencies than HVLP Spray Gun HVLP, many states have passed air pollution regulations that outlaw them or discourage their use. These guns rely on paint pumped under pressure to conventional spray guns, so that it mixes with a stream of compressed air either internally or externally. The compressed air breaks up the liquid stream or atomizes it, causing it to break up into droplets that form a spray. Most internal-mix guns have controls to regulate fluid flow, atomizing air and spray patterns. Since these adjustments allow the guns to meet the finishing requirements of a variety of sizes and shapes, conventional spray guns are used for coating many high-quality items. They can apply catalyzed, high-solids and waterborne coatings as well as more traditional finishes.

It is very important to have the right size of water pressure Paint Tank for your usage. Whether you are installing a new one or upgrading your current pressure tank, selecting the right size of pressure tank for your pump system will ensure that your pump performance is optimized and sustained for as long as possible. That is the reason why pressure tanks have a wide range of sizes and depend on your unique situation and demands for your usages, suppliers can offer you hundred kinds of pressure tanks.
When speed of application is paramount, pro painters go for an airless paint sprayer. These sprayers work by pumping coatings through a tiny opening in the gun’s tip. The pressures are so high—up to 3,000 psi—that the paint explodes from the tip into a fine mist. Such pressures also allow these sprayers to work with coatings of any type, from thin stains to pudding-thick latexes, without any need to adjust their consistency. And because the droplets they generate are so tiny, Airless Sprayers are also able to lay down a flawless finish on broad surfaces like cabinets and doors. By contrast, the high-volume, low-pressure (HVLP) sprayers often marketed to DIYers atomize paint using low-pressure air streams. The bigger, slower-moving droplets they create are less likely to drift off as overspray—a plus for small jobs and detail work—but these sprayers’ lower output makes them impractical for covering large expanses.

Pneumatic Tools, powered by compressed air, can be a useful and portable addition to electrical tools on construction sites, in industrial workshops, and at any work site where power tools are used. The air compressors that power pneumatic tools must be used correctly to ensure the safety of all workers on the job site.
Common pneumatic tools used on the job include nail guns, staple guns, drills, riveting guns, paint sprayer, sanders, grinders, wrenches, buffers, and jackhammers, but the list of available air-powered hand tools is endless.
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